|Title||Diffusion-controlled and"diffusionless" crystal growth near the glass transition temperature: Relation between liquid dynamics and growth kinetics of seven ROY polymorphs|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2009|
|Authors||Sun, Y., H. M. Xi, M. D. Ediger, R. Richert, and L. Yu|
|Journal||Journal of Chemical Physics|
|Keywords||(thermal), ageing, AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS, crystal growth, crystal symmetry, CRYSTALLISATION, D-SORBITOL, dielectric, DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY, DIFFUSION, EQUILIBRIUM, glass, INDOMETHACIN, liquid crystals, NUCLEATION-BASED CRYSTALLIZATION, organic compounds, PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES, polymorphism, quenching, RELAXATION, SOLIDIFICATION BEHAVIOR, SUPERCOOLED O-TERPHENYL, T-G, TRANSITION|
The liquid dynamics of 5-methyl-2-[(2-nitrophenyl)amino]-3-thiophenecarbonitrile, named ROY for its red, orange, and yellow crystal polymorphs, was characterized by dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Four of these polymorphs show fast "diffusionless" crystal growth at low temperatures while three others do not. ROY was found to be a typical fragile organic liquid. Its alpha relaxation process has time-temperature superposition symmetry across the viscous range (tau(alpha)=100 s-100 ns) with the width of the relaxation peak characterized by a constant beta(KWW) of 0.73. No secondary relaxation peak was observed, even with glasses made by fast quenching. For the polymorphs not showing fast crystal growth in the glassy state, the growth rate has a power-law relation with tau(alpha), u proportional to tau(-xi)(alpha), where xi approximate to 0.7. For the polymorphs showing fast crystal growth in the glassy state, the growth is so fast near and below the glass transition temperature T(g) that thousands of molecular layers can be added to the crystalline phase during one structural relaxation time of the liquid. In the glassy state, this mode of growth slows slightly over time. This slowdown is not readily explained by the effect of physical aging on the thermodynamic driving force of crystallization, the glass vapor pressure, or the rate of structural relaxation. This study demonstrates that from the same liquid or glass, the growth of some polymorphs is accurately described as being limited by the rate of structural relaxation or bulk diffusion, whereas the growth of other polymorphs is too fast to be under such control.
|Alternate Journal||J. Chem. Phys.|